John Greathouse http://johngreathouse.com Hands-on startup advice for emerging entrepreneurs Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:00:02 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=4.2.2 What Would You Pay To Have Dinner With A Lost Loved One? http://johngreathouse.com/startups-are-tribal-are-you-a-shaman-or-a-hunter-2/ http://johngreathouse.com/startups-are-tribal-are-you-a-shaman-or-a-hunter-2/#comments Thu, 23 Jun 2016 12:00:02 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5937 A version of this article previously appeared in Forbes. “How much would you pay to have dinner with a lost loved one?” This was a […]

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A version of this article previously appeared in Forbes.

“How much would you pay to have dinner with a lost loved one?” This was a question that my friend and mentor, Bob Wood and I recently discussed during one of our epic bike rides. We both concluded that we would sacrifice an absurd amount of our wealth to spend a few hours with the dear folks we have lost to old age and illness.

This conversation caused me to ponder the obvious reality that busy people, especially entrepreneurs who are building companies, often optimize their time completing short-term operational tasks and lose sight that tomorrow is promised to no one.

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Going Public And Losing A Father

When I was in my early thirties, I was fully engaged raising my young family and creating Computer Motion (NASDAQ: RBOT, sold to Intuitive Surgical for $150M).

Each Holiday Season, my wife and I made a perfunctory, whirlwind trip home to the East Coast. We raced from house to house, ensuring that we gave each of our parents the same amount of time with their grandchildren, but seldom slowing down long enough to have thoughtful, memorable conversations.

When I was 35, my father was diagnosed with Stage Four cancer and given a couple of months to live. At the time, I was heading up Computer Motion’s efforts to go public, writing the S1, orchestrating the all-hands meetings, etc. I felt an incredible pressure to continue this process, coupled with the guilt of being thousands of miles away from my mom and dad and unable to provide hands-on aid and comfort.

As any decent soul would do, I dropped everything when I heard the news and I headed home. When I walked into my dad’s hospital room he smiled and said, “Wow. I must really be sick.” After a couple of days of hanging around with him in the hospital, I recall him waking and wryly saying, “You sure did fly a long way to watch an old man sleep.” I can only hope that I will be cracking jokes when facing down death.

My father was discharged during my visit. My feelings of hopelessness were beyond words. I took him to a few chemo sessions, but after another week or so, I rationalized that there wasn’t much I could do to help and I returned to California to continued my march toward our all-important IPO. I called my parents often as the weeks rolled on, but it was obvious that the sort of miracle that is commonplace in Hallmark movies wasn’t going to happen.

About six weeks later I received the call that everyone dreads. “John, you better come home if you want to say ‘Goodbye’ to your dad.” I was fortunate to spend the next few days with my father before he painlessly passed away. We had a good relationship, so there was no need for deathbed confessionals or dredging up long suppressed feelings of guilt or resentment.

Later that year, Computer Motion went public, yet I felt a deep emptiness that I had not anticipated. On paper, I was a wealthy young man, but I felt anything but “rich.” I didn’t realize it at the time, but I never gave myself a chance to grieve, because I was felt that my demanding job didn’t allow for such luxuries.

My feelings of loss after our IPO were accentuated by the fact that my father was a successful amateur stock trader, long before eTrade made day-trading a common and convenient occurrence. Nothing would have pleased him more than to have seen his son take a company public. At the time, I didn’t realize that our IPO was the first of many personal and professional accomplishments that I would quietly wish I could share with my dad over the following decades.

If I had a do-over, I would take the time to visit my parents outside of the Holidays, without my lovely family in tow. Going alone would have allowed me to enjoy intimate, non-hectic time with my parents. Absent the chaotic, fun madness that accompanies every family traveling with young children, my parents and I could have nurtured and explored our relationship.

Bad News: It’s Unlikely You’ll Live 10,000 Years

“Do not act as if you were going to live ten thousand years. Death hangs over you. While you live, while it is in your power, be good.”
― Marcus Aurelius, Roman Emperor and amateur Philosopher

My message is not new. I don’t claim to have uncovered an amazing insight overlooked by others. Rather, my intent is to remind young entrepreneurs that someday they will be in their fifties (as I am) and many of the important people in their lives will be gone.

Heed what matters most now, not “someday.” Is it more important to close one more deal or spend the weekend with your aging mom, dad, grandparent, aunt or uncle? Practicing what I preach, my adult daughter and I recently spent a delightful week with my mother. It was a priceless opportunity for the three of us to spend intense, high-quality time reminiscing and sharing family lore.

I can tell you firsthand that it matters little how much money you would spend to recapture an embrace with a lost loved one. Such priceless moments are gone forever, unattainable by even the wealthiest souls on the planet.

Time for you to book a flight home and give someone you love the precious (and deliciously unexpected) gift of your presence. You will never, ever regret it. 

You can follow John on Twitter: @johngreathouse.

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Entrepreneurs Should Create A Degree – Not Buy One Off The Rack http://johngreathouse.com/entrepreneurs-should-create-a-degree-not-buy-one-off-the-rack/ http://johngreathouse.com/entrepreneurs-should-create-a-degree-not-buy-one-off-the-rack/#comments Thu, 16 Jun 2016 12:00:11 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5933 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. Entrepreneurs create their own jobs, why shouldn’t they also create their own degrees? As described in […]

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A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

Entrepreneurs create their own jobs, why shouldn’t they also create their own degrees?

As described in Should Millennial Entrepreneurs Skip College?, most young entrepreneurs benefit greatly from the college experience. However, off-the-shelf majors are typically not suited to the eclectic skills required to succeed in the startup world.

In my role as a Professor of Practice within UC Santa Barbara’s entrepreneurial Technology Management Program (TMP), I have worked with my students, led by Randall Dubois, to craft an Individual Major that accommodates the needs of millennial entrepreneurs. I remind my entrepreneurial students that the TMP was begun by students, who petitioned the Dean to add entrepreneurial subject matter to their engineering coursework.

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Custom Wharton Degree

When I arrived at Wharton many moons ago, I was told that all first-year students take the same set of Core classes. Like a sheepeople, I dutifully signed up for the required classes. Within a week, I was bored out of my mind. The material was essentially a rehash of my four years of undergrad business training. Econ is econ, finance is finance and, quite unfortunately, accounting is accounting.

When my second semester rolled around, I was done with curriculum deja vu. Yet I was told by everyone, Professors, Advisors and students alike, that there was “no way” I could get out of taking my remaining Core classes. I took this as a challenge and approached the Dean with several well-rehearsed arguments, determined to overcome his objections.

To my surprise, when I told the Dean that I was learning nothing from the Core courses, he simply asked me what I wanted to take. I handed him my class enrollment form, which he quickly scanned, murmured something unintelligible and signed. As I turned away, somewhat shocked with the ease with which I had customized my curriculum, he stopped me and asked, “I can understand why you want to take Squash, but can I ask why you are enrolling in Farsi?”

By avoiding an entire semester of Core classes (one fourth of my entire Wharton education), I was able to take every single entrepreneurial course offered by the University, while simultaneously earning a Minor Degree in drinking beer and playing poker. Today’s millennials should similarly avoid one-size-fits all degrees and take proactive control of their curriculums.

Proposed Startup Curriculum

When Randall approached the University to create an Individual Major, he was told that only two students had created their own degree in the past 15-years. Two students out of approximately 75,000 graduates. Clearly the University prefers that students buy their degrees off the shelf, rather than customizing one to fit their individual needs.

When trying to cobble together a startup degree, consider the following categories of classes. It is unlikely each of them will be offered at your school, but this list serves as a general guideline for the types of classes you should seek.

I have included UCSB’s catalog course numbers in the event a student is interested in learning more about a particular class. Note that I have not included the TMP courses, which are analogous to the classes offered by most business programs (e.g., marketing, finance, sales, etc.). This list is intended to cover non-obvious courses relevant to entrepreneurs.

Communication

Pursue courses that encompass group dynamics, presentation skills, leadership and seeking understanding and compromise in contentious situations.

Comm 106      Small Group Communication

Comm 120      Interviewing Theory and Practice

Comm 138      Advertising Literacy

Comm 166      Marketing Communication

Economics / Negotiations / Accounting

Seek practical classes and avoid theoretical economic theory courses. Become fluent in the language of business by taking enough accounting classes such that you can interpret financial statements and create pro forma projections. In addition, a solid understanding of business law and the ability to effectively negotiate on behalf of your startup are fundamental startup skills.

Econ 3A          Financial Accounting

Econ 3B          Financial Accounting

Econ 118         Financial Accounting Analysis and Planning

Econ 171         Introduction to Game Theory

Econ 174         Negotiations

Econ 189         Business Law and Ethics in Accounting

Statistics

Gain enough of an understanding of statistics that you can quantify risks and the probabilities of potential outcomes.

Pstat 173         Risk Theory

Computer Science

Contrary to conventional wisdom, success as a millennial entrepreneur does not require that you become proficient in writing commercial-quality software code. However, understanding the various languages, challenges and approaches to coding will help you communicate with and manage your startup’s technical team.

Cmpsc 8          Introduction to Computer Science

Cmptgcs 1A    Computer Programming and Organization I

Cmptcgs 1B    Computer Programming and Organization II

Psychology / Sociology

Focus on psychology classes that explore influence and persuasion, how the mind works and how people form opinions and learn. Sociology courses that discuss historical and future macro trends, as well as societal and organizational dynamics, are also worthy of exploration.

Psy 128           Human Thinking and Problem Solving

Psy 141           Evaluation, Attitudes, and Persuasion

Psy 148           The Psychology of Self

Psy 156           Multimedia Learning

Psy 140           Social Influence

Soc 134F         The Future of Globalization: Global Change, Futurology & Social Sciences

Soc 167           The Structure and Dynamics of Organizations

Philosophy

Pursue classes that contemplate how logic, rationality, critical thinking and ethics impact decision making. Also consider courses that delve into organizational ethics.

Phil 3   Critical Thinking

Phil 4   Introduction to Ethics

Writing / English / Public Speaking

Effective communication skills, both written and verbal, are essentially to entrepreneurial success. If your school does not offer courses in public speaking, join a local chapter of Toastmasters and volunteer to give presentations when working on group projects.

Writ 105PS     Writing for Public Speaking

Writ 107B       Business and Administrative Writing

Writ 107P       Writing for Public Relations

Writ 157A/B   Seminar in Business Communication

The above courses should be considered a general guide. In many cases, it might make sense to simply audit them, rather than enrolling for a grade. This will allow you to focus on the aspects of the course that are relevant to your interests, without forcing you to study gratuitous facts. Ultimately, don’t be a sheepeople. Perform an honest self-assessment and craft a curriculum that will best serve your unique proclivities and capabilities.

Follow my startup-oriented Twitter feed here: @johngreathouse. I'll never tweet about politics or that killer burrito I am about to devour - just startup stuff.

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Startups Are Tribal – Are You A Shaman Or A Hunter? http://johngreathouse.com/startups-are-tribal-are-you-a-shaman-or-a-hunter/ http://johngreathouse.com/startups-are-tribal-are-you-a-shaman-or-a-hunter/#comments Thu, 09 Jun 2016 12:00:45 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5927 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. Startups, much like ancient tribes, are comprised of a small number of people who band together […]

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A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

Startups, much like ancient tribes, are comprised of a small number of people who band together to battle a cruel, hostile world. Like the tribe, a nascent venture’s survival is precarious and never guaranteed. Success requires everyone applying their specialized skills in concert toward the group’s common good.

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Tribes were effective societal structures, lasting over 2.5 million years. Tribes and startups thrive when labor is efficiently divided. Long before Meyers met Briggs, people in tribal communities migrated to those roles which best suited their personalities, proclivities and skills. The key roles in tribes and startups are: Hunter, Skinner, Shaman, Chief and Tribal Elder.

Understanding a successful tribe’s simple organizational structure provides insights into the personality types that should be present on your team during your startup’s formative years. To this end, in partnership with Intuit, I created a series of startup videos that have generated over 100,000 views, including one in which I discuss the tribal aspects of startups.

Hunter

  • Work hard
  • Driven to do right thing
  • Fast and furious
  • Under communicate - do not like to confer with or answer to the group
  • Excel under pressure
  • Emphasis on achieving goals - second guess their tactics at your peril
  • Deliver quantity over quality - close enough is okay
  • Work well outside the box

The Hunter provides for the tribe and literally brings home the bacon. These individuals are highly autonomous, independent and thrive on frequent recognition. When they have a successful hunt, they want everyone to know about it.

The Hunter is generally not a visionary. However, once they are pointed in the right direction, they are clever enough to improvise a tactical plan to achieve a strategic objective. They do not want to be told how to take the hill, just which hill needs to be taken.

At your venture, the hunter is the rainmaker, in the form of a Business Development Executive, VP of Sales or Corporate Development Officer. Once they are told the type of deal that is needed, they are capable of autonomously devising the appropriate tactics to get the deal done.

Skinner

  • Work correctly
  • Driven to do things the right way
  • Slow and careful
  • Service oriented - want to meet stakeholders’ needs within the organization
  • Over communicate - encourage meetings and agreement regarding goals
  • Quality over quantity - do things “by the book”
  • Work inside the box - excel within predefined guidelines 

The Skinner makes the Hunter look good. When the Hunter brings back the kill, it is the Skinner who dresses the meat, tans the hides and preserves whatever is not initially eaten for the tribe to subsist upon during lean times.

The Skinner at your venture will likely take the form of the VP of Operations, VP of Professional Services or Chief Operating Officer. They ensure that your company delivers on the Hunters’ promises by exceeding your partners’ and customers’ expectations.

Shaman

  • Work differently
  • Creative visionary
  • Communicate differently - requires careful listening
  • Seek a better way
  • Create quickly and freely
  • Tripped up by details
  • Prone to devise complicated solutions
  • Prize a solution’s technical elegance over its functionality
  • Are unaware that a box exists

Shamans invent new tools and processes that improve the overall quality of life within the tribe. For instance, the Shaman will spend his days thinking of a better fishhook, a new tool for cleaning skins or searching for new medicinal plants to cure the tribe’s ailments.

At your venture, the Shaman is often the Founder. They may also take the form of Chief Technical Officer, VP of Engineering or VP of Product. By whatever name, the Shaman is the person who devises and develops the innovations upon which your business is based.

Chief

  • Work together
  • Shepherd the team toward its strategic goals
  • Slow and connected
  • Communicates clearly and supportively
  • Driven to maintain cohesion within the team
  • Indecisive
  • Prone to being railroaded
  • Defines the box

Every tribe needs a Chief, just like every venture needs a CEO. The Chief defines and communicates the tribe’s strategic direction, such as a new valley to forage or a mountain retreat to escape the heat of summer. The Chief listens to the opinions of the other tribal members, makes decisions that impact everyone and ensures an adequate level of acceptance of such decisions to facilitate their ultimate success.

One of the best (and most infuriating) CEO’s I worked with exhibited nearly all of the above characteristics. As a Hunter, I was frequently frustrated, as he was often slow to act. In his effort to keep harmony within the team, he seemingly agreed with everyone, even people who held diametrically opposed opinions.

In retrospect, I now realize that his ability to sincerely empathize with everyone’s respective positions, especially on difficult issues, was imperative in keeping our key executives effectively working in harmony during the tumultuous challenges we frequently encountered on our road to a successful exit.

One of his favorite sayings frustrated me at the time, but I now appreciate its underlying wisdom, “Some of the best decisions I ever made were the decisions I never made.” Despite my Hunter-driven frustration at his hesitancy, more often than not, his resistance to making a snap decision proved to be prudent.

Tribal Elder

  • Hardly works
  • Thoughtful, caring
  • Experienced but not smug
  • Egoless
  • Provocateur - challenges, cajoles, encourages
  • Looks into the box, provides high-level perspective

Tribal Elders spend their time sitting by the fire dozing and recounting the tribe’s history. They cannot be counted on to do any heavy lifting nor are they in a position to execute the day-to-day tasks necessary for the tribe to thrive. However, they occasionally offer bits of sage advice that allow the tribe to avoid hardships and reap windfalls.

At your venture, the Tribal Elders are represented by your Board of Directors and Advisors. Ideally, they have varied and broad business histories upon which to draw. They may be able to provide general guidance at certain pivotal points during your venture’s journey. However, never heed their advice blindly, as it is impossible for them to have your level of insight into the operational details of your venture.

Which Roll Is The Most Important?

All of them and none of them.

Without the Hunter, the Shaman’s ideas would never be put into practice. Likewise, without the Skinner, much of the Hunter’s efforts would be wasted. He might be able to feed himself, but he would not be able to sustain the tribe on his own.

Without the Shaman, neither the Hunter nor the Skinner would have the tools necessary to carry out their respective roles within the tribe. Without the Chief, the tribe would wander aimlessly, fighting among itself until the group eventually dispersed and the individual members were melded with other tribes with healthier cultures and a more focused sense of direction.

Balance is the key to a successful team. Thus, every member of your venture’s core team is the most important member. Respect mankind’s evolution and heed the tribal lessons of old. If you do, you may just end up on top of your industry’s food chain.

You can follow John’s startup-oriented Twitter feed here: @johngreathouse.

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Four Questions Entrepreneurs Should Answer Before Dropping Out Of College http://johngreathouse.com/four-questions-entrepreneurs-should-answer-before-dropping-out-of-college/ http://johngreathouse.com/four-questions-entrepreneurs-should-answer-before-dropping-out-of-college/#comments Thu, 02 Jun 2016 20:15:22 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5921 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. Are you an entrepreneur that is thinking about dropping out of college? Answer the following four […]

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image002A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

Are you an entrepreneur that is thinking about dropping out of college? Answer the following four questions first.

The startup careers of Zuckerberg, Ellison, Disney, Gates, Jobs, Branson and Dell make it seem that the path to entrepreneurial success is enhanced by avoiding a college degree. I even played into this mythology with a provocative article I wrote about college dropout successes.

However, as made clear in Should Millennial Entrepreneurs Skip College?, most students benefit greatly from the college experience and are far better off maturing from the age of 18 to 22 in a nurturing environment, rather than attempting to start a business without a college degree.

Yet, for a small number of collegians, leaving school to focus on their ventures full time is the appropriate path. What differentiates this small minority of entrepreneurs who are better off dropping out of school (or never enrolling) and running their startups full time?

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In my role as a Professor of Practice within UC Santa Barbara’s entrepreneurial Technology Management Program, I council several students every quarter who contemplate quitting school to focus exclusively on their ventures.

I advise almost all of these students to remain in school. However, I consistently encounter a handful of young entrepreneurs who are better served by taking a break from school. The trick is to know if you are destined to be LeBron James or Jonathan Bender. Both skipped college to play professional basketball. LeBron was the exception to the rule, immediately dominating the league and enjoying an All Star career. In contrast, Mr. Bender joined the all-too-long list of 18-year old high school graduates who failed to thrive when pitted against professional athletes.

To help my students determine if they are James or Bender, I ask them four questions. If they answer “Yes” to each, I advise them to take a temporary leave of absence from school and pursue their ventures.

Are You LeBron?

  1. Funded – Have you raised adequate money from sophisticated investors that will allow you to operate without additional funding for at least a year?
  1. Team – Have you assembled the foundation of a legitimate team? This could just be a solid Co-Founder or an initial key hire or two. Teams have shelf lives. In most cases, great potential teammates won’t wait around while you earn your degree.
  1. Product / Market Fit – Have you proven that your product’s value proposition and price point resonates with your target market. (i.e., dogs love the dog food)?
  1. Execution – Have you established meaningful sales traction which validates your team’s ability to survive and ultimately be victorious?

In the rare instances when a student drops out of school to pursue their ventures, I strongly encourage them to continue their studies part time. If they weren’t willing or able to do so, I council them to define a milestone-based timeline. If key milestones are not met on the anticipated dates, they should have the discipline to abandon their venture and complete their education.

A High School Graduate Who Hedged His Bets

Although he opted to skip college, LeBron James signed major endorsement deals upon entering the NBA. Even if he had not lived up to the hype that preceded his NBA debut, the money from his endorsements would have sustained him for a lifetime. Financially secure, he could have subsequently attended college and pursued a variety of non-athletic careers.

The “Are You LeBron?” questions encourage students to only drop out of school if the downside of failure is mitigated by four important precursors to success.

b/t/w – Do you think you are LeBron? If so, I’d love to hear from you.

Follow my startup-oriented Twitter feed here: @johngreathouse. I'll never tweet about underwater ballet or that killer burrito I am about to devour - just startup stuff.

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Should Millennial Entrepreneurs Skip College? http://johngreathouse.com/should-millennial-entrepreneurs-skip-college/ http://johngreathouse.com/should-millennial-entrepreneurs-skip-college/#comments Fri, 27 May 2016 00:48:55 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5917 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. Should millennial entrepreneurs go to college? Given the stellar startup careers of non-college graduates like Zuckerberg, […]

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A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

Should millennial entrepreneurs go to college? Given the stellar startup careers of non-college graduates like Zuckerberg, Ellison, Disney, Gates, Jobs, Branson and Dell, the answer to this question might surprise you.

In sports, outliers generate headlines. Basketball stars LeBrone James and Kobe Bryant achieved immediate success in the NBA as 18-yr old high school graduates. However, what about Kwame Brown and Eddy Curry? Ever heard of Jonathan Bender and Darius Miles? Like James and Bryant, these talented players opted to skip college, in favor of a professional career. Unlike James and Bryant, they were journeymen, not superstars.

The same is true in business, where outliers are given an outsized amount of attention. If you believe the mythology surrounding the handful of entrepreneurs who did not obtain a degree, you may think that the path to entrepreneurial success is enhanced by avoiding college. I must admit, I furthered this anti-college narrative with a provocative article about college dropout successes.

In my role as a Professor of Practice within UC Santa Barbara’s entrepreneurial Technology Management Program, I am confronted by several millennials each quarter who ask me if they should quit school to work on their ventures. My response is almost always the same; I think dropping out is a very bad idea.

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Should I Stay Or Should I Go?

Here is an excerpt from an email I wrote to a student who asked me if she should drop out of school to run her business fulltime because she was anxious "to do great things."

“You are not the first student to pose this question to me. I have had the opportunity to communicate with several students who felt as you do, yet they remained in school and graduated. In each case, the students were glad they remained in school and snagged their diploma before launching their startups. 

As a young person, I shared your desire, ‘to do great things.’ Rest assured, you are not currently wasting your time getting a degree. You will have ample time to make a huge impact on the world, after you graduate.”

Get More Than A Degree

I recently spoke to an international group of entrepreneurship professors at San Diego State University’s Lavin Entrepreneurship Center. I asked them to devise reasons an entrepreneur should remain in college.

Nearly all the Professors agreed that students should stay in school, even if their venture is doing well. Their most persuasive argument was that college teaches young people many things beyond textbook facts and case studies, including:

Discover What You Don't Want To Do - College affords students a chance to satisfy their curiosity by exploring areas of intellectual interest and learn not only what they want to do with their lives, but also what they don't want to do. Once a graduate enters the work world, she loses this luxury of time and flexibility.

Learning To Learn - A sound college education includes gaining the insights into applying logic, researching data and assessing the veracity information. Wise students focus on taking advantage of college to learn how to learn, rather than focusing on simply regurgitating facts.

Peer Management - Group projects, albeit painful, are an extremely effective proving ground for a startup career. In their early stages, startups are generally meritocracies in which strong-willed, highly opinionated people must be encouraged to act in a certain way, rather than ordered to do so. College group projects force students to develop a diplomatic leadership style, in order to encourage their peers (whom they cannot order around) to accept their suggestions.

Mini-ventures - Remaining in college does not mean that students must put their entrepreneurial dreams on hold. Small ventures that can be run part-time allow students to gain hands-on experience. In addition, many a college venture has blossomed into a full-fledged startup after graduation.

Network – Colleges are populated by motivated individuals, many of whom will excel in their chosen fields. Young entrepreneurs can call upon their alumni networks for advice, recruitment of key employees and even funding.

Resources – Many campuses offer entrepreneurial students a variety of free resources, such as: incubators, accelerators, mentor programs, venture competitions (with meaningful prize money) and even seed funding.

Maturity - A significant amount of emotional growth occurs between the ages 18 and 22. For many people who do not enter college after graduation, a stent in the military or Peace Corps allows them to develop emotionally and gain valuable, real-world experiences. The same is true of a college education, which provides young people with a safe environment to learn from their mistakes.

Although a number of notable entrepreneurs either dropped out or never attended college, they are the exception, not the rule. Yes, Kobie Bryant skipped college and had a stellar career. Yet, most successful NBA players earn a college degree, just like the majority of successful entrepreneurs.

Millennials: go to college, grow up a bit, establish a network of like-minded entrepreneurs, learn from some bad choices, do a few keg stands and graduate with the life skills that will equip you to change the world.

Follow my startup-oriented Twitter feed here: @johngreathouse. I'll never tweet about underwater ballet or that killer burrito I am about to devour - just startup stuff. You can also check out my hands-on startup advice blog HERE.

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Practice Entrepreneurship With A Purpose – Before You Start A Company http://johngreathouse.com/practice-entrepreneurship-with-a-purpose-before-you-start-a-company/ http://johngreathouse.com/practice-entrepreneurship-with-a-purpose-before-you-start-a-company/#comments Thu, 12 May 2016 23:15:03 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5907 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. Even Stephen Curry Needs To Practice Entrepreneurship is a contact sport. It cannot be learned from […]

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A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

Even Stephen Curry Needs To Practice

Entrepreneurship is a contact sport. It cannot be learned from a book or in a classroom. The skills which underlie entrepreneurship are largely learned first-hand, through trial and error.

However, you do not need to start a business to begin exercising your entrepreneurial muscles. There are a number of tasks you can perform that will allow you to train in the art of entrepreneurship while you are in school or working at a large organization.

The key to effective rehearsing is to first establish the goals you want to achieve. If you don’t know which specific skills you want to improve, you will only get better them by accident.

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Practice With A Purpose

“There is no glory in practice, but without practice, there is no glory”

Unknown

The following seven activities allow you to hone your entrepreneurial skillset, without going all in on a particular venture. Focus on the exercises that make you the most uncomfortable, rather than expending energy enhancing your strengths.

  1. Advise A Startup

“By learning you will teach, by teaching, you will learn”

Latin proverb

You may be thinking, “I am not qualified to advise a startup. That’s why I am reading this article. I want to learn, not teach.” Great. There is no better way to learn than when you are forced to teach.

No matter where you are in your entrepreneurial maturation, there are many bright, eager folks who are a bit behind you. If you are in college, advise a High School entrepreneur club. If you are a recent college graduate, mentor college students. If you are a seasoned executive, work with a team of aspiring entrepreneurs.

  1. Refine Your Personal Pitch

“The more you sweat in practice, the less you bleed in battle”

Richard Marcinko, Author

Networking is one of an entrepreneur’s most valuable skills. Practice your interpersonal talents by repeatedly entering a room of strangers with the goal of making at least five meaningful connections with people who can assist the startup you are advising (see point #1 above).

You can easily avoid awkward pauses by weaving your Personal Pitch into your networking conversations. Your pitch should comprise the following three elements.

Who you are – your interests, experiences, education, why you are so bloody interesting.

Where you are going – your bombastic, fascinating entrepreneurial dreams.

How you plan to get there – your short-term tactics and long-term strategies for turning your dreams into reality.

If networking makes you uncomfortable, as it does for many people, that is all the more reason to practice it. As with all skills, the better you get at networking, the less anxiety you will feel when you are on the practice field and ultimately once you get into the game.

If you are networking to assist a startup you are advising, you can substitute the company’s pitch for your personal pitch.

  1. Entrepreneur It

“Don’t practice until you get it right. Practice until you can’t get it wrong”

Unknown

Look for areas in your workplace in which you can create something from nothing. Surprise your boss by launching a project that requires little to no resources, but has an outsized impact on your business.

Ask yourself, “If we hired an entrepreneur, what would they change about the way we do business?” then carryout whatever recommendations you devise. Don’t worry, you can apologize after the fact, when you point to the positive impact your initiative had on your company.

If you are a student, do something bodacious within the confines of a club or student organization. Create a community service project, raise a small venture fund to capitalize student companies – whatever you do, it should be bold and force you to call upon all of your startup talents.

  1. Keep An Idea Journal

“Practice puts brains in your muscles”

Sam Snead, Professional Golfer

As Stephen Johnson demonstrates in Where Good Ideas Come From, epiphanies are rare. Most breakthroughs result from the collision of small ideas which combine to form big ideas. Thus, it pays to document your daily thoughts so you can later recall and combine them with subsequent hunches.

Such journals, formerly called Commonplace Books, were used during the 17th & 18th centuries by curious, deep thinkers, including: Milton, Bacon, Locke, Franklin and Darwin. Modern day entrepreneurs use Evernote, Google Keep, etc. to capture and organize their hunches.

  1. Launch A Side Business

“The difference between ordinary and extraordinary is practice” Vladimir Horowitz, Pianist

As noted in Mini-ventures Build Entrepreneurial Muscle, a number of substantial companies have arisen from ventures started by people in school and who had fulltime jobs.

Even if your mini-venture does not morph into a substantial business, it will act as an effective practice court upon which you can enhance your entrepreneurial chops.

  1. Don’t Throw Up, Speak Up

“You earn your trophies at practice, you just pick them up when you perform.”

Unknown

Entrepreneurs must be able to influence and persuade others, often in a public setting. You can practice this talent by volunteering to give presentations at work, school or in non-profit organizations. You can also join groups such as Toastmasters, whose explicit purpose is to help its members become more confident and able public speakers.

Much like networking, if speaking in public make you queasy, proactively practice your way to proficiency.

  1. Get A Coach

“You play the way you practice.”

Unknown

It is difficult to practice alone. Not only is it a challenge to remain motivated, it is difficult to objectively identify which skills you are improving and where you should focus your practice time.

Like athletes, entrepreneurs benefit greatly from a coach, in the form of a caring mentor. As described in You’re Never Too Old (or Successful) For A Mentor, the time you invest in cultivating a mentor relationship is time well spent.

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Image: AP Photo / Rick Bowmer

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Entrepreneur Hack: This Remote Team Of 12 Generated $100M http://johngreathouse.com/entrepreneur-hack-this-remote-team-of-12-generated-100m/ http://johngreathouse.com/entrepreneur-hack-this-remote-team-of-12-generated-100m/#comments Thu, 05 May 2016 23:05:21 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5901 A version of this article previously appeared Forbes. When I published This Remote Working Experiment Failed And Succeeded on the Wall Street Journal last year, […]

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A version of this article previously appeared Forbes.

When I published This Remote Working Experiment Failed And Succeeded on the Wall Street Journal last year, I had no idea it would generate so much social media attention. Given TimeHop’s failed experiment, I was especially intrigued when I learned that a team of a dozen remote entrepreneurs hack the typical corporate structure and creates a company that generated nearly $100 million in revenue.

Creating an effective remote team is often difficult, especially for a startup, as the core business issues are ill-defined and the pace is chaotic. Thus, even though it is enticing to start a company based with a remote working structure, it is often a challenge to maintain a decentralized approach as a company expands beyond its founding team.

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Two Virtual Organizations That Worked

To gather hands-on remote team building advice, I sought out two companies that have done it: TaxJar and FastSpring. Both companies’ success proves that it is possible to coordinate and motivate disparate team members, even during a startup’s early, chaotic days.

TaxJar

Some companies allow employees to work remotely one day a week or on an ad hoc basis. In contrast, TaxJar, a SaaS solution which makes automates online sales tax calculations, reporting and filings, is an entirely virtual company. Although the company has a vibrant, collaborative culture, no two employees work under the same roof. (Note: I am an investor in TaxJar via Rincon Venture Partners.)

I asked TaxJar’s Co-Founder and CEO, Mark Faggiano to list five reasons his decentralized venture has flourished.

  1. “Our teams have daily standups so we can easily keep track of what we're working on and work through any blockers. We also have a weekly all company meeting so we can all keep track of the company's progress and collaborate across teams/”
  1. “We have biannual team meetings where we all gather in one place to plan prioritize and socialize.”
  1. “We use Flowdock to chat daily. We have separate channels for work but we also talk about fun things just like any office watercooler. Like any team we also have our inside jokes. Since we chat online, our inside jokes include memes and specially created emojis.”
  1. “Our team produces, so we don't necessarily have to work typical business hours. Our team has flexible schedules that allow them to spend time with the kids in the early evening and hit the slopes on a perfect powder day. The bottom line is that the TaxJar team is happy - and because we're happy, we're incredibly productive.”
  1. “We realize that remote work is not for everyone. Thus, during the recruiting process, we look for evidence of the applicant’s ability to: work autonomously, effectively communicate via chat and email and a willingness and ability to collaborate, despite being unable to walk down the hall and park themselves in a compatriot’s office.”

FastSpring

Dan Engel, Co-Founder and former CEO of FastSpring, is a highly successful serial entrepreneur. Dan is now CEO of Mobile1st, makers of Mobilizer, the mobile customer experience optimization platform.

Early in his career, Dan proved to be a valuable contributor on my GoToMeeting business development team (acquired by Citrix). He then joined Picasa and was instrumental in its acquisition by Google. He then started several successful companies, including FastSpring, a company that provides outsourced e-commerce services to over 3,000 software companies.

Dan shared his entrepreneurial insights with my UC Santa Barbara students, including the manner in which he built a virtual organization. The following four-minute excerpt highlights his comments focused on creating an effective remote work environment. You can watch Dan’s entire talk here.

As Dan notes, “FastSpring these days is over a $100M business and it wasn’t much less than that when we had about twelve people. And we did it all with about $30,000. No venture capital.”

From the start, Dan and his co-founders, (who were also all remote, in four different US states), focused on building the optimal team to tackle the specific type of opportunity they faced, rather than the best team that could be placed under one roof. According to Dan, “In terms of people, we had an approach that had to do with finding the best people, the best fits for the positions and not the best people who happened to be in the same zip code.” Dan later noted that, “This actually turned out to be a huge advantage for us. We gave our people a large amount of flexibility… those that showed they were able to get their job done, we left them alone. They could work on their own terms.”

One way this advantage was evident was with regard to customer service. “Our competitors had customer service where you got an auto response. Whereas (at) FastSpring, we were responding 11:00 on Saturday night. Christmas day, all throughout the day. I didn’t have to ask anybody to work those hours, it’s just that they cared. We hired the type of people who slept with their laptop in bed with them so to them it was like, ‘Well, I’m checking my email anyway.’”

When FastSpring was acquired, the entire team was comprised of twenty two people, of which, “… we had three people in Santa Barbara and everyone else was working, generally, from home and some people were in other countries.” Unlike TaxJar, which meets as a team twice a year, Dan notes that FastSpring’s four co-founders, “… went through a period of three years… where we didn’t even see each other, we didn’t get together once. We would communicate through email… and every once in a while, if there was something important, we’d get on a call.”

Such an organizational structure and communication style would not work for many companies, but in FastSpring’s case, all of the co-founders were former CEOs. Per Dan, “… so we kinda knew what we were doing and we had the division of labor pretty strong. I didn’t need to know what they were doing in their area (because) they knew what they were doing.”

Although the structure worked well for Dan and his team, he did note that it wasn’t without its pitfalls. In particular attempts to raise money and ultimately to sell the business were hampered by the company’s virtual nature. In Dan’s words, “… we did run into potential partners, buyers that would say, ‘Oh, well I really don’t like that the company is spread out all over the place.’ The larger that you get, the harder stronger that argument gets because you have bigger firms (wanting to buy or partner) who want stability and control things from a single place.”

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Image credit: John Zich/Bloomberg News.

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9 Success Principles From A 40-Year Veteran http://johngreathouse.com/9-success-principles-from-a-40-year-veteran/ http://johngreathouse.com/9-success-principles-from-a-40-year-veteran/#comments Thu, 28 Apr 2016 19:30:09 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5895 A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes. After 28 years as a public-school teacher, Bob Wood reluctantly left the classroom and took the […]

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A version of this article previously appeared on Forbes.

After 28 years as a public-school teacher, Bob Wood reluctantly left the classroom and took the helm of his elementary school. During his 10-year tenure as Principal, his team was awarded the White House’s National Blue Ribbon, a distinction granted to the top 0.3% of all elementary schools nationwide. Under Bob’s leadership, his school was also named a Distinguished School by the California Department of Education, earning an unprecedented score of 10 out of 10.

As noted in You're Never Too Old (Or Too Successful) For A Mentor, Bob is my mentor and friend. Thus, I was honored when he agreed to share his insights regarding the fundamentals of success with my UC Santa Barbara entrepreneurial students.

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You can watch a 7-minute excerpt from Bob's talk here.

Bob Wood’s Nine Fundamentals of Success

Drawing upon his nearly 40-years as a public servant, Bob distilled his formula for leadership success into the following fundamentals.

  1. Communicate Authentic Core Values

Successful leaders must constantly communicate the core values which underlie their organization’s vision. In turn, the leader’s vision and actions must also be congruent with these values. If done effectively, these organizational values will become the foundation upon which the company’s corporate culture is maintained.

  1. Demand Customer Centricity

The challenges of a public school Principal are akin to that of a CEO, with the added handicap that it is nearly impossible to terminate poor performers. Like a CEO, Principals must collaborate and cajole their various stakeholders, which include teachers, parents, students, staff and administrators.

Bob successfully managed his constituents by never forgetting that his ultimate “customers” were the students he was serving. He resolved numerous conflicts by reminding his stakeholders of their shared commitment to provide the students’ with an optimal education. Startup CEOs can likewise diffuse internal dissention by refocusing their team’s attention on their customers, rather than their colleagues.

  1. Display Total Commitment

Effective leaders demonstrate with their words and their actions that they are “all in.” Without compromise, they apply all of their efforts to the organization’s success and they demand a similar level of dedication from their key team members.

  1. Be Of Service

Successful leaders do not give orders. Instead, they help those around them attain their goals, knowing that this approach will ultimately lead to the team’s overall success. As Bob notes, “I was in service to everyone… if a (light) bulb needed changing in a classroom…I got a ladder and changed it.”

  1. Be Transparent

Acting with transparency goes beyond giving your stakeholders visibility into the decision making process. In Bob’s words, “You have to be who you are on the inside and on the outside. “You have to be on the inside who you are on the outside. Everything has to be congruent. What you say and what you do has to fit who you are it. You can’t fake it.”

  1. Create A Path

Great leaders create a pathway devoid of obstacles that could impede their team’s progress. This path guides the organization and keeps it moving in an optimal direction. Per Bob, “When things are static, that’s when things start to fail. I created a wake (for my team to ride.)” Channeling Daoist philosophers, Bob implored my students, “Whatever you do, don’t wobble.”

  1. Borrow Best Practices

Bob also reminded the students of Picasso’s definition of a great artist, “Good artists borrow, great artists steal.” Stellar leaders create a culture which encourages employees to experiment and seek a “better way,” rather than dogmatically adhering to solutions that worked in the past.

  1. Hire Well

Recruiting the right team members is a leader’s most important responsibility. As Bob notes, “Hire people who reflect the (organization’s) core values and who can grow.” This often requires you to “subsume your ego” and hire individuals who are more talented than yourself.

At a startup, shared values and vision are cornerstones of an effective strategic plan. If your team does not internalize these principles, the lack of accord will guarantee your venture’s failure. Harmony is easier to maintain once you hire people with the right aptitude and the right attitude.

  1. Don’t Hold The Bus

No matter how carefully you recruit your team, some people will be unable to evolve as your company grows and addresses new challenges. As Bob notes, although it is painful, successful leaders must “…leave some people behind.”

It is never easy to sever ties with an employee, even those which are not excelling. However, successful organizations seldom have the luxury to throttle back their growth to accommodate struggling employees.

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Avoid Hiring Victims – Look For These 5 Red Flags http://johngreathouse.com/avoid-hiring-victims-look-for-these-5-red-flags/ http://johngreathouse.com/avoid-hiring-victims-look-for-these-5-red-flags/#comments Thu, 14 Apr 2016 12:00:26 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5888 A version of this article previously appeared in Forbes. We’ve all met them. The world’s out to get them. Every boss, coworker and subordinate is […]

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A version of this article previously appeared in Forbes.

We’ve all met them. The world’s out to get them. Every boss, coworker and subordinate is scheming to assure their demise. Setbacks are never their fault. They are a victim.

Victims are bad enough in our personal lives, but they can be especially disastrous at a startup because a small company’s culture can be disproportionately poisoned by a single bad hire.

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Blame Game

“I am not a victim of emotional conflicts. I am human.”

American Actress, Marilyn Monroe

Some people are quite happy being unhappy. Marriage counselors advise young lovers to never marry someone with the intent of changing them. Follow this advice when recruiting.

Throughout their lives (personal, professional and otherwise), such folks are unable to internalize responsibility for their actions. Every time something goes wrong in their careers, it is always someone else’s ‘fault’, invariably someone who was ‘out to get them’.

Clearly, it is possible for anyone to occasionally become embroiled in a bad employment situation. Nearly everyone at some point in their professional career has been treated poorly in some way. However, if a candidate’s repeatedly negative comments make it clear that such ‘mistreatment’ is a recurring theme throughout their careers; the warning bells should sound and you should quickly cut bait. A normal person is occasionally slighted by their employer. Victims perpetually perceive such slights.

In such cases, the person either repeatedly exercised bad judgment that led them to accept jobs in unhealthy environments or (more likely) they lack the self-awareness to accept and share the responsibility for their career setbacks. Either way, you do not want their bad luck / bad judgment to taint your team.

Self-identified victims are fairly easily to identify during the recruitment process, if you are attuned to the signs.

  • Externalize Failure – Healthy startups have a culture of accountability. Victims cannot be held accountable, because it is never their fault. There is always some other factor responsible for their failures. This mentality limits their ability to learn from their mistakes and fosters a culture of finger pointing and blame.

Effective employees internalize their failures and setbacks. They honesty assess what went wrong in order to avoid similar mistakes in the future. For instance, if a sale is lost to a competitor, self-aware employees examine what they could have done differently during the sales process, rather than deriding the lost customer as “stupid” or alleging that a competitor beat them using nefarious tactics.

Red Flags: “They never gave me the resources I needed to succeed.” Or “My team was weak. I could never hire good people because my boss wasn’t willing to pay market salaries.” “The Founders couldn’t raise the capital I needed to execute my strategic plans.”

  • Single-handed Success – To the victim, success does not have “one hundred fathers.” Rather, it is the result of their intellect and hard work.

Victims overvalue their contributions and exaggerate the degree of their involvement in successful initiatives. Few successes are achieved by just one person. Self-aware candidates freely acknowledge the contributions of their teammates, bosses and other stakeholders.

Red Flags: Frequent use of “I and Me” instead of “Us and We” “I generated 53% of the company’s sales.” “My deals kept the company afloat.”

  • Them & They – Victims describe their past coworkers as if they were never a member of the organization, using pronouns such as, “they” and “them.”

Red Flags: “I tried to tell them that their target market didn’t make sense, but they wouldn’t listen to me.”

  • Everyone Is Clueless – Victims are the sole source of wisdom in their universe. Co-workers are clueless because they fail to appreciate the victim’s brilliance.

Red Flags: “My boss didn’t know what she was doing. She was totally clueless.” “The CEO and the investors didn’t have a clue, despite my repeated warnings that their strategy wouldn’t work.” “Marketing couldn’t generate decent leads and their collateral materials were terrible.”

  • Past Is Prologue – Perpetual victims often seek retribution for their imagined injustices through third parties, such as government agencies and the courts. Fortunately, the typical victim’s lack of self-awareness makes it relatively easy to determine if they previously brought an action against any of their former employers. Just ask them.

The government and courts play an important role in balancing worker and employer rights. Thus, the simple fact that a candidate has previously been embroiled in a labor issue shouldn’t de facto disqualify them from further consideration. In fact, it is illegal to not offer someone employment solely on the basis of a prior employment lawsuit.

Understand if seeking retribution is a pattern of behavior or a one-time, justified action. Many such instances will be subject to confidentiality agreements. Fortunately, you don’t need to know the details of such disputes to appreciate the spirit in which they were initiated.

Red Flags: Understand the general facts behind any prior arbitration, governmental or legal dispute in which the candidate has been embroiled.

Victims Love Company

“If misery loves company, misery has company enough.”

American Author, Henry David Thoreau

Perpetually unhappy people are poisonous to your culture. If left unchecked, their vitriol can lead to an “us versus them” divide that will impact your organization’s productivity and morale.

You may feel empathy when interviewing a victim, but never allow your emotions to result in a bad hire. Once a victim, always a victim. No matter how much support or praise you heap on them, you are not going to change them.

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How Can You Tell If Someone Truly Believes In Your Startup? http://johngreathouse.com/how-can-you-tell-if-someone-truly-believes-in-your-startup/ http://johngreathouse.com/how-can-you-tell-if-someone-truly-believes-in-your-startup/#comments Mon, 04 Apr 2016 12:00:41 +0000 http://johngreathouse.com/?p=5880 A version of this article previously appeared Forbes. When entrepreneurs describe their venture, they are often met with encouraging words, such as: “Great idea. I […]

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A version of this article previously appeared Forbes.

When entrepreneurs describe their venture, they are often met with encouraging words, such as: “Great idea. I wish I had thought of that.”

This propensity for people to be polite when you discuss your startup can make it difficult to determine who really believes in your opportunity and who is just being nice. Fortunately, you can separate the polite from the committed by issuing the Blondin test.

Each generation, a few magnetic personalities emerge and generate a mania of public interest. During the mid-19th Century it was Jean Francois Gravelot, who wisely abandoned his given name and dubbed himself The Great Blondin. He was a true rock star of his day.

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We Believe Blondin, We Believe

On June 30, 1859, at the height of his fame, Blondin stood before a crowd of tens of thousands of people at Niagara Falls. He had begun his Niagara show by crossing the Falls on a tightrope three inches in diameter. Although the cable spanned 1,100-foot and was 160 feet above the raging waters, the trek was fairly pedestrian for a man of his skills. Always the showman, he nonetheless choreographed a few wobbles and slips in his initial crossing in order to heighten the drama.

He then addressed the crowd, asking them if they believed he could cross the Falls blindfolded. The crowd predictably cheered, "Yes, yes. We believe, we believe, we believe!" Much to their delight, Blondin donned a blindfold and made a roundtrip across the tightrope.

He then asked the crowd, "Do you believe I can cross pushing a wheelbarrow?"  Again the crowd riotously chanted, "We believe, we believe, we believe!"

Blondin successfully crossed the Falls pushing a wheelbarrow. Blondin then whipped the crowed into a frenzy before shouting, “Do you believe that I can cross with a man on my back?” Again the crowd hysterically shouted back, “We believe, we believe, we believe!"

Blondin smiled broadly and shouted back to the cheering throng, “It is great that you believe in me. Now who wants to get on my back?"

Silence… No one in the entire crowd of revelers, which had moments before shouted, “We believe, we believe” volunteered to join Blondin on his trip across the rope. They clearly did not really believe.

You will meet Blondin’s crowd over and over as you plan and execute your venture. Friends, family and disinterested parties will emphatically tell you, “We believe!” whenever you tell them about your wacky entrepreneurial plans. With friends and family, this sort of superficial support is expected. However, when you are attempting to build a team of employees, investors, customers and partners, you cannot afford such placation.

When a potential stakeholder, pull the Blondin Test. Make them prove their belief by getting on your back as you step onto the proverbial entrepreneurial tightrope.

One way for a supplier or strategic partner to prove their belief is to accept equity in lieu of cash. With early employees, you might ask them to accept an outsize amount of equity in lieu of cash compensation. If they believe, they will value your stock more than wages.

If the potential stakeholders really believe in you, your team and your startup’s prospects, they will get on your back and trust that you will either succeed or fail together.

Let’s Do This Together

What happened after Blondin silenced the crowd by challenging their belief? Did a drunken fool stumble from the throngs and take Blondin up on his offer of a free ride over the Falls?

No such fool, drunk or otherwise, emerged from the crowd. Instead, Blondin's manager, Harry Colcord, climbed aboard Blondin’s back and the two men successfully made the journey without mishap.

Why did Colcord make the perilous trip? He really believed. However, his was not blind faith. Colcord was confident in Blondin’s capabilities because he was privy to Blodin’s rigorous practice regime. Through his actions, not his words, Blondin had earned Colcord’s trust.

Keep this important distinction in mind when you deploy the Blondin Test. If someone jumps on your back without just cause, they may just as quickly jump off with the first wobble. You owe all your stakeholders proof that their belief is justified. Informed faith, based upon mutual respect, is the solid foundation upon which should establish your stakeholder relationships.

Entrepreneurial leaders must instill an absolute belief in their startups among all their stakeholders. The Blondin Test is a great way to assess whether or not someone truly believes, and thus whether or not you can count on them to lend you meaningful support when the startup tightrope starts to shimmy and shake. In such cases, do not hesitate to ask them to get on your back and prove their belief in you.

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